Learn about key technical and specific terms used in the industry


Old name given to a group of legumes (same family as beans, soybeans, peas, peanuts etc.), recently divided into five new genera. Two of these (Senegalia and Vachellia) are found in Brazil. Senegalia is more numerous, with approximately 52 species in Brazil, while only two species of Vachellia are found in the country. One of these, formerly known as Acacia farnesiana, is distributed extensively around the world but most likely originated from the tropical Americas.

Agricultural waste

Straw, fruit peels, tree bark, grain, bagasse, pruning waste, and wood rejects are some examples of farming waste that can be used to generate power. Biomass waste presents one solution for diversifying the energy grid. In Brazil, various types of vegetation are recognized as rich sources to produce electric and thermal energy.


Tree genus found in South America or Australia; one species, Araucaria angustifolia, is also called Brazilian pine or Paraná pine.

Babassu palm

Plant in the palm family (Arecaceae) that produces edible drupe fruits with seeds from which oil is extracted. Mainly used in food and medicine, and the subject of research for biofuel production.

Bioenergy reducer

Function of charcoal to purify ore in producing pig iron, as well as producing energy. Replacing fossil fuels with biomass permits the capture of CO2 from the atmosphere during photosynthesis and storage of this carbon in biomass. When this biomass is used instead of non-renewable products or energy sources, it helps reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.


Organic material used as a source of energy or part of living organisms used to produce fuel. Created by photosynthesis conversion of solar energy. Directly related to the green parts of a plant.

Black liquor

A byproduct of the pulp production process.


Characteristic whiteness.

Carbon capture

The process that removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. This mainly takes place in oceanic algae, forests, and other places where organisms capture carbon and release oxygen into the atmosphere through photosynthesis. It also involves the capture and safe storage of carbon dioxide (CO2), so that this gas is not released into the atmosphere to remain there.

Carbon credits

Certificates issued by an individual or company that reduced emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG).

Carbonless copy paper (CCP)

Type of paper that makes copies on pads without carbon paper. The back of the top sheet contains micro-capsules of ink, while the middle sheets have revealer on the front side and micro-capsules on the backs, which transfers the writing to the sheet below.


To carve, sculpt (in wood or marble).


An important product from energy forests, which not only produces energy but can be used as a thermal reducer in the production of pig iron.


A term used in the wood industry to refer to small pieces of wood; they can vary in size from 5 to 50 mm. The quality of wood chips is directly related to the raw material and technology used in production.

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Projects

The CDM was created to reduce the costs of projects to decrease greenhouse gas emissions when implemented in developing countries, encouraging sustainable development and creating opportunities for technology transfer to these countries. Appealing for industrialized countries as well as developing nations, but has demonstrated some limitations, such as high costs of the transaction process and project implementation.

Coated Paper

Also known as couché, this paper has an offset base which is coated on one or both sides to provide a smooth and uniform surface. Used by the printing market because of its high quality.

Corrugated Paper

Industrially-made paper used for a variety of boxes.

Crepe paper

Highly elastic and soft, which make it perfect for germinating seeds, tape, and reinforcing seams in multilayer bags.

Cut-size Paper

Uncoated paper, also known as copy paper, and available in A4 (210x297mm) and letter (216x279mm) sizes. Used in offices and industries, as well as for domestic printing, copy machines, and school activities (painting, collage, and cutting).

Energy forests

Planted forests from which the main product is biomass for energy. They are strategically planned to generate clean and renewable energy. Energy forests may supply thermoelectric power plants in a competitive manner, decentralizing the energy generation system, and also can provide environmental, social, and economic benefits by creating direct and indirect jobs in the surrounding region.


A tree in the Myrtaceae family, native to Oceania, where it is a dominant species among local flora. There are more than 700 species, most originating in Australia; the species adapts to practically all climates. Interestingly, eucalyptus trees will not flower until the adult leaves emerge.

A major advantage of eucalyptus is lower water retention; this allows water to reach the soil faster and decreases evaporation into the atmosphere, unlike some species of native trees with denser crowns. Eucalyptus can provide pulp, essential oils (which are used to make cleaning products, food, perfumes, and pharmaceuticals), and of course wood, which is used to produce boards, planks, wood ceiling panels, battens, rafters and poles, among other products.

Extensible Kraft Paper

Essentially made from softwood (long-fiber) pulp. Very resistant to tearing and tension. Used in paper bag packaging.

Filter paper

Usually made from chemical stock. Used in different industrial filtration processes.

Floating Wood Flooring

Laminate floor covering unlike other types in that it is not fixed to the subflooring with screws, nails, or glue.

Forest Certification

Systems that create rules for natural resources management, from the forest to the finished product. Demonstrates good forestry management, in other words, guarantees that production generates the least impact possible on the environment and maximizes the social and environment benefits of production. Certification guarantees the origin of the product and continuous improvement in the production processes, as well as the efficiency of forestry and industrial activities, consequently reducing potential losses and impacts.

Certification is obtained through independent and external audit processes performed by certifying bodies that assess seedling production methods, planting, and harvesting, up to through the manufacturing of the finished product. These process evaluate impacts on the environment and on surrounding communities, employee health and safety, and compliance with municipal, state, and federal laws.

Glassine or parchment paper

Transparent paper derived from higher levels of refinement in the production process. Used in food packaging, to protect fruit on trees, and in self-adhesive paper.

Grade A Kraft

Packaging paper similar to natural or colored kraft, but with lower resistance (may or may not be monolucid). Usually used in products such as small bags.

Grade B Kraft

Similar to grade A kraft, but less resistant. Used for wrapping and packaging in general.

Greaseproof paper

Translucid paper that is very impermeable to oil, used for packaging oily products.

Green economy

An expression with complex meanings and implications related to the broader concept of sustainable development established by the Brundtland Report in 1987 and officially recognized by the international community at the Rio-92 Earth Summit. It has gradually replaced the term “ecodevelopment” in debates, discourse, and formulation of policies involving the environment and development.

The central idea of the green economy is that society’s production processes and resulting transactions should increasingly contribute to sustainable development, not only in terms of social aspects but also environmental aspects. The main idea is that not only is it necessary to create productive and social technologies, but also means through which essential factors connected to social and environmental sustainability can be considered, since they are currently ignored in economic analysis and decisions.

Greenhouse gases

Gases that absorb some infrared radiation, which is mostly reflected back to earth, making it difficult for them to escape into space and consequently keeping earth warm. The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon; it has been occurring since the earth was formed and is necessary to sustain life on the planet. But the increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has catalyzed this effect, causing temperature increases (called global warming).


The quality of something that is waterproof (blocks liquids or other substances from passing through).

Kraft paper

A type of packaging paper known mainly for mechanical resistance.


Paper made from a high percentage of virgin fibers to meet the strength specifications required for the outer or inside layers of corrugated cardboard boxes.

Laminate flooring

Um dos principais tipos de revestimento de piso produzido a partir da madeira. É fabricado a partir de fibras e de partículas de árvores plantadas para fins industriais (pinus e eucalipto), que são fontes de matéria-prima renovável e reciclável. Desenvolvido com avançada tecnologia, é utilizado em residências, comércio e ambientes corporativos.


Shaping a piece of wood using a turning axle.

Legal Reserve

The area of a rural property that can be utilized within sustainable forest management, according to the legally-established limits for the biome in which the property is located. Because reserves contain a significant portion of the natural environment of the local region, they are essential for maintaining local biodiversity.


This amorphous tridimensional macromolecule is found in land plants and is associated with cellulose in the cell wall, which makes plant cells stiffer, impermeable, and resistant to microbiological and mechanical attacks.

LWC Paper (Light Weight Coated)

Low-grammage paper that is coated on both sides. The calendaring process makes it glossy and smooth. Usually used in high print run printing.


Corrugated paper used in the middle layer of cardboard.

Melamine resin

A hard thermosetting plastic material, made from melamine and formaldehyde by polymerization.

Metallic Paper

Paper that receives a metallic finish for industrial use.


A very thin synthetic fiber used to make fabric; mainly made of polyester and polyamide. The thread obtained is 100 times thinner than a human hair, but only half as thin as silk.


Machined; made by a machine.

Monolucid paper

Mainly used in printing bags, labels, and laminates.


A macromolecule synthesized by the chemical connection of monomers (such as amino acids, monosaccharides, and nucleotides) that are the origin of proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids, respectively. Nanopolymers generally contain the same elements as their monomers in the same relative proportions, but in greater quantities.

Natural Kraft Paper for Multilayer Bags

Made from softwood fibers. High tear and burst resistance, mainly used in large-scale industrial sacks and packaging.

Natural or Color Kraft Paper for other purposes

Made from softwood. Monolucid or smoothened, with similar resistance characteristics to natural kraft paper for multilayer bags. Used to make small bags and packaging in general.

Newsprint or Journal Paper

Paper used for printing newspapers and periodicals; usually grayish because of the type of fibers used in its production. Brazil imports high volumes of newsprint.

Offset paper

White paper without surface coating. Its resistance and uniformity guarantee good printing results. Highly used in printing for promotional materials (flyers, pamphlets, signs), folders, notebooks, planners, envelopes, notepads, calendars, bank statements, etc.

Outgrower programs

A strategic instrument that integrates rural farmers into the production chain and offers them economic, social, and environmental advantages. In addition to expanding the forest base within an economically viable transport radius to supply industrial demand for raw materials, outgrower programs (as a supplementary activity on rural properties) utilize degraded and unproductive areas which may not be suited for agriculture and livestock, creating an additional income alternative for rural farmers.


Wood, metal, or plastic frame used to move cargo.


Heavier, stiffer, and thicker than other papers, mainly used in packaging. Generally comes in three types: duplex (white front, dark back), triplex (white front and back, dark middle), and solid (100% virgin fiber pulp).

Parchment paper

Paper used for writing. Matte and evenly smooth on both sides. Normally used for correspondence and for school notebooks, envelopes, and tracing paper.


Species (Schizolobium spp.) that has been widely planted by wood companies in the north and northeast of Brazil; occurs in the Amazon in Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru and Bolivia. Used to produce matches, shoe heels, toys, models, light packaging, canoes, ceiling lining, center portions of wood panels and doors, concrete molds, laminates, plywood, pulp and paper.

The tree is recommended for commercial plantations, agroforestry systems, and reforestation of degraded areas because of its fast growth and good performance in homogeneous arrangements as well as consortiums. Its structure and flowers also make it useful in public squares and large gardens.

Permanent Preservation Area (APP)

According to the New Brazilian Forest Code (Law No. 12.651), APP are areas that may or may not be covered with native vegetation and should be preserved in order to protect water resources, landscapes, geological stability, biodiversity, genetic flow of flora and fauna, the soil, ensuring the well-being of human populations.


Species that tolerates low temperatures and shallow soils that are not productive for farming. Pine produces softwood (long-fiber) pulp, which is very strong and ideal for packaging paper, newsprint, and reconstituted wood panels.

Plant cell wall

A very resistant, flexible, and occasionally stiff layer that surrounds some types of cells. It surrounds the cell membrane, supporting and protecting the cell while acting as a filter. One of the main functions of the cell wall is to act as a pressure vessel in order to avoid cytolysis (when water enters the cell). The cell wall in plants, fungi, and prokaryotic cells differs from that found in bacteria.

Planted tree production chain

Includes all industrial, equipment, and services companies, as well as class entities, academia, and governmental agencies that are related to the production and sale of trees and/or the products derived from trees.

Private Natural Heritage Reserve

A type of preservation unit created voluntarily on private property. It is perennial, and instituted by the government. Because it is voluntary, the owner defines the size of the area to be set aside as a private reserve.


Also known as cellulose, this fibrous substance (polysaccharide) exists inside the cells of most plants. It is invisible to the naked eye, but is responsible for the stiffness and strength of woody plants.


Cellulose pulp is the most commonly used material used to produce paper. Wood used for this purpose is generally considered “pulpable,” which includes spruce, pine, fir, and European larch, as well as hardwood species like eucalyptus and birch.

Pulp fibers

Group of cells that make up the tree wall.

Recycled liner

A grayish paper made from wastepaper. Used for wrapping that does not require special presentation, supplied in tubes.

Recycled paper

According to the Brazilian ABNT standard NBR 15755 (2009), recycled paper must contain at least 25% post-consumer waste paper and a maximum of 50% virgin fiber pulp. This type of paper tends to have a natural color which results from mixing the mix of different inks and the brown fibers that are in reclaimed papers (waste paper). They are used in books, magazines, promotional material (flyers, pamphlets, signs, direct mailings), invitations, stationery, bank statements, notepads, notebooks, planners, calendars, and bags, among other applications.

Renewable raw material

A natural or semi-manufactured (intermediary) product that could be subjected to a production process until it becomes a finished product in order to reutilize the resources used to the greatest extent possible. This raw material could be of any type of origin (animal, plant, or other). In chemical processes, raw materials can be solids, liquids, suspensions, or and gases.

Renewable resource

A natural resource that can be returned to nature or regenerated through natural processes at a rate equal to or greater than human consumption. Sources include solar radiation, ocean waves, wind, and hydropower. Biomass and geothermal energy are also examples of renewable natural resources.

Reverse logistics

An area of logistics that generically deals with the physical flow of products, packaging or other materials, from the place a product is consumed back to its point of origin.

Shaped pulp

Obtained from loosening or separating wastepaper fibers (especially from newspaper). The fibers are mixed with water and chemicals to create a stock which is used to produce trays to transport and protect fruits, vegetables, eggs, light bulbs, cell phones, refrigerators, and stoves.


A plant used for commercial purposes grown in semiarid regions. In Brazil, the main producers are in the states of Paraíba and Bahia. Bahia contains the world’s largest production center for this material, which includes the cities of Santaluz, Queimadas, Valente, Retirolândia, São Domingos, and Conceição do Coité.

Solid waste

All solid and semi-solid waste resulting from human or non-human activities. Although they may not be useful in the activity that generated the waste, they could become inputs for other activities. For example, household trash that is collected through municipal systems, as well as from public squares that may include leaves, tree branches, and pruning waste. If adequately managed, solid waste can be commercially valuable and utilized as new raw material or new inputs.

Supercalendered paper

Low-grammage, uncoated paper for printing and writing. Has a smooth and shiny surface from the calendaring process. Mainly used for magazines and commercial prints.

Sustainable forestry management

Forestry management for economic, social, and environmental benefits, respecting mechanisms to support the ecosystem under management. Includes multiple wood species (overall or alternating), multiple products, and non-wood byproducts, as well as using other forestry goods and services.


Tree native to tropical forests in Southeast Asia which produces top-grade wood which is widely used and appreciated around the world. It ranges from golden yellow to brown, and may have dark veins that make it very useful in decorative applications such as paneling.


Timberland Investment Management Organization; these may bring together capital, invest, and manage forests.


Low-grammage sheets or rolls used for personal hygiene and household cleaning, such as toilet paper, tissues, paper towels, and napkins. In addition to virgin fibers, it also includes good-quality recycled wastepaper.

Tissue paper

White or colored packaging paper used for light packaging, gift wrap, interleaving, decorations, fruit protection, etc.

Tree Biotechnology

Technology that creates biological products and processes; spectrum or set of molecular technologies employed to study microorganisms, plants and animals.

Tree biotechnology uses science to transform or modify products or processes for specific uses for the wood and fiber obtained from trees.

Wastepaper traders

Wastepaper traders purchase paper waste from small traders, recycling traders, waste pickers, associations, companies, printing houses, banks, cooperatives, supermarkets, schools, etc. They work with completely recyclable wastepaper for industries. After purchasing the wastepaper, it is separated and classified for subsequent sale to manufacturers (recyclers) who increasingly demand higher quality, since this has a direct impact on optimal recycling.

White or Color Kraft Paper

Made from softwood (long-fiber) pulp, can be monolucid or smoothed. Used as the outer layer in multilayer bags, sugar and flour sacks; depending on weight, can be used in candy.

White Top Liner Paper

White paper with high virgin fiber content to meet the strength specifications required for part of corrugated paper boxes.

Wood panels

Sheets of wood made from pine or eucalyptus fiber, mainly used in furniture production.