Created: 01 June 2015

Acacia: old name given to a group of legumes (same family as beans, soybeans, peas, peanuts etc.), recently divided into five new genera. Two of them – Senegalia and Vachellia – the only ones with occurrences registered in Brazil. Senegalia is more numerous, with approximately 52 species in Brazil, while Vachellia has just two species, one of them formerly called Acacia farnesiana, extensively distributed around the world, most likely originating from tropical America.

Brightness: Characteristic or particularity of something that is very white, whiteness.

Wastepaper businesspeople: Wastepaper businesspeople are responsible for buying wastepaper from small traders, scrap iron sellers, waste pickers, associations, companies, publishers, banks, cooperatives, supermarkets, schools etc. They work with completely recyclable wastepaper for industries. After buying the wastepaper, the companies separate and classify the material for future sale to manufacturers (recyclers); increasingly demanding higher quality, as it directly affects recycling optimization.

Araucaria: Tree in America or Australia, also called Brazilian pine or Paraná pine.

Permanent Preservation Area: According to the New Brazilian Forestry Code (Law No. 12.651), APPs are areas, which may be covered with native vegetation or not, which should be preserved with the environmental function of preserving water resources, landscape, geological stability, biodiversity, gene flow of flora and fauna, protecting the soil and ensuring the well-being of human populations.

Babassu: a plant form the palm family (Arecaceae), with drupe fruits with oil and edible seeds where oil is extracted. Mainly used in food, medicine, as well as being targeted in advanced studies for biofuel production.

Biomass: Organic material used as a source of energy or part of live organisms used in fuel production. It is created by the photosynthesis conversion of solar energy. Directly related to the green parts of a plant.

Tree Biotechnology: Technology that creates products and processes of biologic origin. Spectrum or set of molecular technologies applied to study microorganisms, plants and animals.

Tree biotechnology includes the use of science to transform or modify products or processes for specific tree wood and fiber uses.

Planted trees production chain: Includes all industrial, equipment, and services companies, as well as class entities, academia and governmental agencies that are related to the production and sale of trees and/or its products.

Carbon capture: The process that removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Said process is mainly carried out by algae in the oceans, forests and other locations where organisms capture carbon and launch oxygen in the atmosphere through photosynthesis. Means the capture and safe storage of carbon dioxide (CO2), thus avoiding its emission and permanence in the atmosphere.

Charcoal: An important product from energy forests, which in addition to producing energy has the purpose of being a thermal reducer in pig iron production.

Chips: A term used in the wood industry to refer to small wood pieces resulting from grinding. Chips are small pieces of wood, which sizes can vary from 5 to 50 mm. The quality of the wood chip is directly related to raw material and technology used for production.

Pulp: A fibrous substance (polysaccharide) that exists in most plants, located inside plant cells. It is visible to the naked eye and guarantees stiffness and firmness in plants.

Forestry Certification: Systems that create rules for natural resources management from the forest to the finished good. Demonstrates good forestry management, that is, the guarantee that production generates the least impact possible to the environment and maximizes the social and environment benefits of production. It guarantees product origin and continuous improvement of production processes, efficiency of forestry and industrial activities and therefore, reduces potential losses and impacts.

Certification is obtained with independent and external audit processes, made by certifying bodies that assess seedling production methods, planting and harvest, up to the finished good in the industry, not to mention assessment related to environmental impacts and surrounding communities, employees’ health and safety and compliance with city, state and federal laws.

Carbon credits: Certificates issued by an individual or a company that reduced its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

Green economy: An expression with even more complex meanings and implications, related to the more comprehensive concept of sustainable development, consecrated by the Brundtland Report, from 1987, and officially recognized by the international community at Rio-92, gradually replacing the term “ecodevelopment” in debates, discourses and formulation of policies involving the environment and development.

The core idea of Green Economy is the set of production processes in society and the transactions resulting therefrom that increasingly contribute to sustainable development, not only in relation to social aspects but also to environmental aspects. Therefore, essentially proposes that, in addition to production and social technologies, the means for which essential factors connected to social and environmental sustainability are created, as today they are ignored in economic analysis and decisions, but should be considered.

Carved: To carve, sculpt (in wood, marble).

Brown and Offset paper: Paper essentially made from natural and grayish color wastepaper. Used for wrapping that does not require special presentation and supplied in tubes.

Eucalyptus: Tree from the Myrtaceae family, eucalyptus is native from Oceania, where it is a dominant species in local flora. With over 700 species, most of Australian origin, it adapts to practically all climate conditions. A curious fact related to eucalyptus foliage is that until the adult leaves are there, these trees do not flower.

A very interesting advantage of eucalyptus is lower water retention, enabling water to reach the soil faster, in addition to decreasing evaporation into the atmosphere, on the contrary to other native trees, whose tree crowns are denser. The eucalyptus can provide pulp; essential oil extracts, with which cleaning, food, perfumes and medicine products can be made, not to mention, boards, planks, wood ceiling panels, battens, rafters and poles, among others.

Pulp fibers: Group of cells that make up a tree wall.

Energy Forests:  are planted forests where the main product is biomass for energy. It is strategically created to generate clean and renewable energy. Energy forests may supply thermoelectric power plants in a competitive manner, decentralizing the energy production system, in addition to the environmental, social and economic benefits by creating direct and indirect jobs in the region they are implemented.

Outgrowers’ programs:  a strategic instrument that promotes the integration of rural farmers to the production chain and offers them economic, social and environmental advantages. In addition to increasing the forestry base within the economic radius of transportation to supply the demand of raw material for the industry, the outgrowers’ program, as a supplementary activity on rural property, makes the use of degraded and unproductive areas feasible, as they are underused and inadequate for agriculture and livestock, creating an additional income alternative for rural farmers.

Greenhouse Effect Gases: Gas substances that absorb part of infrared radiation mainly reflected on earth making it difficult for them to escape into space. This hinders the gross loss of heat into space keeping earth warm. The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon. This phenomenon has been occurring since Earth was formed and is necessary to maintain life on the planet. The increase of greenhouse effect gases in the atmosphere have increased the potential of this natural phenomenon, causing a temperature increase (called global warming).

Impermeable: The quality of something that is waterproof (where water or other substances cannot pass).

Black liquor: A byproduct of the pulp production process.

Lignin: An amorphous tridimensional macromolecule found in terrestrial plants, associated to pulp on the cell wall whose function is to grant stiffness, impermeability and resistance to the microbiological and mechanical attacks on plant tissue.

Reverse Logistics: an area of logistics that generically deals with the physical flow of products, packaging or other materials, from consumption to point of origin.

Sustainable forestry management: means forestry management to obtain economic, social and environmental benefits, respecting the mechanisms of supporting the ecosystem object of management and considering, cumulatively or alternatively multiple wood species, of multiple products and non-wood byproducts, as well as using other forestry goods and services.

Renewable raw material: a natural or semi manufactured (intermediary good) product that could be submitted to a production process until it becomes a finished good, with the purpose of reutilizing the resources used as much as possible. Raw material could be animal, plant or any other type of origin. In chemical processes, raw materials can be solid, liquid, suspensions and gases.

Microfibers: A kind of very thin synthetic fiber used to make fabric. Mainly made of polyester and polyamide. The thread obtained is 100 times thinner than a human hair, but only half as thin as silk.

Nanopolymers: A macromolecule synthesized by the chemical connection of monomers, such as amino acids, monosaccharides and nucleotides that originate, respectively, proteins, polysaccharides and nucleic acids. Overall, nanopolymers contain the same elements in the same relative proportions as their monomers, however they are found in a higher absolute quantity.

Wood panels: Wood sheets, made from pine or eucalyptus fiber, mainly used as inputs in furniture production.

Pallet: A wood, metal or plastic frame used to move cargo.

Parchment paper: Paper indicated for writing. Matte and evenly smooth on both sides. Normally used for correspondence and for school notebooks, envelopes and foolscap folio.

Carbonless copy paper (CCP): Type of paper that makes copies on pads without carbon paper. CCP has microencapsulated ink on the backside of the top sheet. The intermediary sheet contains revealer on the front side and microcapsules on the backside. It transfers the information to the bottom sheet.

Kraftliner: Paper made from a high content of virgin fibers, complying with resistance specifications required to build the cover or inside of corrugated paper boxes.

Testliner: Similar to kraftliner, however testliner has lower mechanical properties, as it has a high content of recycled raw material.

Paperboard: Sets itself apart from other papers as it has a high grammage, higher stiffness and thickness.   The main application is packaging. The three types are Duplex (dark backside), Triplex (dark middle and white backside) and Solid (100% virgin fiber pulp).

Crepe Paper: Highly elastic and soft, important characteristics to use as the base of seed germination, tape and reinforcing seams in multilayer bags.

Filter Paper: Usually made from chemical stock. Used in different industrial filtration processes.

Coated Paper - coated paper has an offset base, which is coated on one or both sides, with the purpose of providing a smoother and uniform surface. Used by the printing market for its high printing quality.

Cut-size Paper: Uncoated paper, also known as copy paper and available in the A4 (210x297mm) and Letter (216x279mm) sizes. Used in offices and industries, domestic printing, copy machines and schools (painting, collage and cutting).

Glassine or Parchment Paper: The main characteristic is transparency, obtained from a high refinement level in the production process. Used in food packaging, as protection for fruits on trees and self-adhesive paper.

Greaseproof Paper: Translucid, high impermeability to grease that is why it is used in greasy products packaging.

Newsprint or Journal Paper: Paper used for newspaper and periodical printing, usually grayish, resulting from the type of fibers used in its production. Brazil imports high volumes of newsprint.

Kraft Paper: A type of packaging paper whose main characteristic is mechanical resistance.

White or Color Kraft Paper: essentially made from softwood, monolucid or smoothened. Used as the outside layer in multilayer bags, sugar and flour sacks, bags and depending on the grammage; used in candy and bonbon wrappers.

Extensible Kraft Paper: Essentially made from softwood fibers. High tear resistance and resistant to energy absorbed in traction. Used in paper bag packaging.

Natural or Color Kraft Paper for other purposes: Essentially made from softwood. Monolucid or smoothened, with similar resistance characteristics to Natural Kraft for Multilayer Bags. Used to make small sacks, bags and packaging in general.

Natural Kraft Paper for Multilayer Sacks: Essentially made from softwood fibers. High tear resistance and good burst resistance, mainly used in large size industrial sacks and packaging.

LWC Paper (Light Weight Coated): low grammage and coated on both sides. Goes through a calender to make it glossy and smooth. It is usually used in high print run printing.

Metallic Paper: Paper that receives a metallic finish for industrial use.

Middle Paper: Corrugated paper used in the middle layer of cardboard.

Monolucid paper: Mainly used in printing bags, labels and laminates.

Offset paper: White paper without surface coating. Its resistance and uniformity guarantee good printing results. Highly used in the printing area—promotional material (folder, pamphlets, signs), folders, notebooks, planners, envelopes, notepads, calendars, bank statements, among others.

Shaped pulp: Obtained from loosening or separating fibers in wastepaper, especially newspaper. The fibers are mixed with water and chemicals to create a stock with which products such as trays to transport and protect fruits and vegetables, eggs, lamp protection, cell phones, refrigerators and stoves are made.

Recycled paper: According to Brazilian standard ABNT NBR 15755 (2009), recycled paper must contain, at least, 25% of post-consumer wastepaper and a maximum of 50% of virgin fiber pulp. This type of paper usually has a natural color, resulting from mixing several different inks and brown fibers that are in reclaimed papers, also called wastepaper. Used in book middles, magazines, promotional material (folders, pamphlets, signs, direct mail), invitations, general stationary, bank statements, notepads, notebooks, planners, calendars, bags, among others.

Tissue paper: White or color packaging paper. Used for light packaging, gift wrapping, interleaving, decorations, fruit protection etc.

Grade A Kraft: Packaging paper similar to Natural or Colored Kraft, but with lower resistance, monolucid or not. Usually used in small bags etc.

Grade B Kraft: Similar to Grade A Kraft, but with lower resistance. Used in wrapping and packaging in general.

Tissue: Part of low grammage sheets or rolls, used in personal hygiene and household cleaning, such as toilet paper, tissues, paper towels and napkins. In addition to virgin fibers, it is mainly made up of good quality recycled wastepaper.

Supercalendered paper: Low grammage, uncoated paper for printing and writing. Smooth and shiny surface, with its unique gloss obtained in the calender. Mainly used in magazines and commercial prints.

White Top Liner Paper: Paper made from a high content of virgin fibers, complying with resistance specifications required to make part of corrugated paper boxes.

Corrugated Paper: Industrially made paper by putting together different boxes.

Plant cell wall: A very resistant, flexible and occasionally stiff layer, which surrounds some types of cells. It surrounds the cell membrane and gives the cell structural support and protection, acting as a filter. One of the main functions of the cell wall is to act as a pressure vessel, avoiding Cytolysis (when water enters the cell). The cell wall is present in plants, fungi, prokaryotic cells, but not in the genus bacteria.

Parica: Species that has been widely planted by wood companies in the North and Northeast of the Country. Occurs in the Amazon in Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru and Bolivia. Used in matches, shoe heels, toys, models, light packaging, canoes, lining, panel and door middle, concrete molds, laminates, plywood, pulp and paper.

The tree is indicated for commercial planting, agroforestry systems and reforestation of degraded areas, as result of its fast growth and good performance in homogeneous formations in consortiums. With its dashing architecture and flowering, the tree can be used in public squares and large gardens.

Pine: a species that tolerates low temperatures and planting in shallow soil that is not productive for farming. Softwood is obtained from pine trees. Softwood is very resistant and ideal for manufacturing packaging paper, newsprint and reconstituted wood panels.

Floating Floor: Laminate floor covering that, differently than others, is not nailed, screwed onto or glued to the subfloor.

Stock: Pulp stock is the most commonly used material in paper production. Woods used for this purpose are known as “pulpable” wood. Woods such as picea, pine, spruce and European larch, and the hardwoods such as eucalyptus and birch.

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Projects: The CDM was created aiming at reducing the costs or projects that decrease greenhouse gas emissions when implemented in developing countries, thus, encourage sustainable development, and create opportunities for technology transfer to these countries. Deemed an appealing mechanism not only for industrialized countries, but also for developing countries. However, said mechanism has shown some limitations, such as those related to the high costs involved in the transaction process and project implementation.

Renewable resource: A natural resource that can be returned to nature or regenerated through natural processes at a rate equal to or greater than human consumption. The sources can be made from solar radiation, ocean waves, winds and hydropower. Biomass and geothermal energy are examples of renewable natural resources.

Bioenergy reducer: the capability that charcoal has in pig iron production, as well as producing energy. Replacing fossil fuels with biomass enables CO2 sequestration from the atmosphere as from photosynthesis and stores carbon in biomass, which could be used instead of non-renewable products or energy sources, contributing to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

Melamine resin: A hard thermosetting plastic material, made from melamine and formaldehyde by polymerization.

Legal Reserve: The area of a rural property that can be explored with sustainable forestry management, according to limits set forth in the law for the biome in which the property is located. As it houses a significant portion of the natural environment of the region where it is located, it is necessary to maintain local biodiversity.

Private Natural Heritage Reserve: A category of the Private Preservation Unit created on private property, voluntarily by the owner, indefinitely, instituted by the government. As it depends on the owner’s will, the owner defines the size of the area to be established as RPPN.

Farming waste: Straw, fruit peel and tree bark, grain, bagasse, pruning waste and wood rejects are some of the examples of farming waste that have a great potential for power generation. Reusing the biomass waste is one of the solutions to diversify the energy matrix. In Brazil, several plant elements are deemed rich sources to produce electric and thermal energy.

Solid waste: All the solid and semi-solid waste resulting from human activities or non-human activities. Although they may not be useful for the core activity of the place they were generated, they could become inputs for other activities. Examples: Waste generated in households that is periodically recovered by the waste collection system in your city and the waste collected from sweeping public squares and locations that could include tree leaves, branches and pruning waste. If adequately managed, solid waste gains commercial value and can be used as new raw material or new inputs.

Sisal: A plant used for commercial purposes. Sisal is grown in semiarid regions. In Brazil, the main producers are in the states of Paraíba and Bahia. In the latter, especially in the sisal production region, where the largest center of production and industrial sisal in the world is located, includes the cities of Santaluz, Queimadas, Valente, Retirolândia, São Domingos and Conceição do Coité.

Teak: Native plant of tropical forests in Southeast Asia. A prime wood and widely used and appreciated in all five continents. It is golden yellow to brown and may have dark veins with a great decorative effect, such as wall covering.

TIMOs: means Timberland Investment Management Organization. An organization that could be a capital collector, investor and forest manager.

Shaping: Rounding, hewing, giving a shape to a wood piece.

Milled: Machined; made by a machine.